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Downloadable "Straight Tox" Articles

("Straight Tox" is a trademark of Dwain Fuller, Forensic Toxicology Consultant since 1994)

   Pitfalls in Forensic Toxicology

A discussion of the pitfalls to understand and avoid in forensic toxicology. Download StraightTox-Pitfalls_in_Forensic_Toxicology.pdf

   Pharmacokinetics in Forensic Toxicology

A discussion of the use of pharmacokinetics in forensic toxicology. Download StraightTox-_Pharmacokinetics.pdf

   Lethal Injection

A discussion of lethal injection and the misuse of pharmacokinetics in postmortem forensic toxicology. Download StraightTox_-__Lethal_Injection.pdf

   "Cheese" heroin

A discussion of the potential of enhanced lethality of "Cheese" heroin. Download Straight_Tox_Cheese_for_website.pdf

   Medical Marijuana

A discussion of the potential merits of cannabinoids for medical use. Download Straight_Tox_Medical_Marijuana.pdf


A discussion of the abuse potential of dextromethorphan. Download Dextromethorphan_for_website.pdf


A discussion of "water intoxication" as an example of "dose alone makes the poison". Download StraightTox_-_Hyponatremia.pdf


A discussion of the opioid buprenorphine and its uses. Download StraightTox-Buprenorphine.pdf

   1,4 Butanediol & GHB

A discussion of 1,4-Butanediol, the "Aqua-Dots" drug. Download Straight_Tox_1_4_Butanediol.pdf


Ricin is the highly potent toxin lethal at 0.5 milligram that was recently found in a Las Vegas motel room. Download Ricin_Straight_Tox.pdf

   Methadone: Old Drug, New Challenges

A discussion of the drastic rise in methadone-related deaths and some of the causes. Download Straight_Tox___Methadone.pdf

   A Preliminary Investigation into Retrospective Calculation of In-Vivo Drug Concentrations in Dried Crime Scene Blood

Poster presented at 2009 Annual Meeting of the Society of Forensic Toxicologists. This file is provided as a service to interested professionals and does not constitute an endorsement of me or my services by the VA. Download Retrospective Calculation of Drug conentrations in dried blood.pdf

   Propofol: To sleep perchance to dream...

Propofol is the drug that has garnered so much law enforcement and media attention in the wake of Michael Jackson's death. Download Propofol_StraightTox.pdf

   Cocaine and Pepper Spray: A Lethal Combination?

A recent study points to an increased chance of lethality when pepper spray is used on a cocaine intoxicated individual. Does this withstand scientific scrutiny? Download Straight Tox Capsaicin and Cocaine.pdf

   Herbal Incensed: K2 and Spice

An article detailing the synthethic cannabinoids that have been detected in herbal incense or smoking blends. Download K2 and Spice_Straight Tox.pdf

   Ethanol, Ethyl Glucuronide, and Ethyl Sulfate in Urine

A discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of monitoring ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate to detect recidivism in those required to be alcohol abstinent. Download Ethanol, ETG and ETS in urine_StraightTox.pdf

   Alcohol and Energy Drinks

A discussion of the dangers of consuming alcohol-laced energy drinks. Download Alcohol and Energy Drinks Straight Tox.pdf

   The 2-C Phenethylamines

The 2-C Phenethylamines: The New Kids on the Block. Download Straight Tox 2C phenethylamines.pdf

   Arsenic: An Old Nemesis Returns

A discussion of arsenic in fruit juices and the environment. Download Straight Tox Arsenic.pdf

   Polonium 210: The perfect Poison?

Could Polonium 210 be the perfect poison? Download Polonium 210 _ Straight Tox.pdf

   Caffeine: The People's Drug

A discussion of caffeine and its safety. Download Caffeine Straight Tox.pdf

   Organophosphates: From the Farmer's Field to the Battlefield

A discussion of organophosphate compounds that find use ranging from pesticides to nerve agents. Download Straight Tox _ Organophosphates.pdf